Read king harald s saga harald hardradi of norway from snorri sturluson s heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson Online


This compelling Icelandic history describes the life of King Harald Hardradi, from his battles across Europe and Russia to his final assault on England in 1066, less than three weeks before the invasion of William the Conqueror. It was a battle that led to his death and marked the end of an era in which Europe had been dominated by the threat of Scandinavian forces. DespitThis compelling Icelandic history describes the life of King Harald Hardradi, from his battles across Europe and Russia to his final assault on England in 1066, less than three weeks before the invasion of William the Conqueror. It was a battle that led to his death and marked the end of an era in which Europe had been dominated by the threat of Scandinavian forces. Despite England's triumph, it also played a crucial part in fatally weakening the English army immediately prior to the Norman Conquest, changing the course of history. Taken from the Heimskringla - Snorri Sturluson's complete account of Norway from prehistoric times to 1177 - this is a brilliantly human depiction of the turbulent life and savage death of the last great Norse warrior-king....

Title : king harald s saga harald hardradi of norway from snorri sturluson s heimskringla
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ISBN : 8911406
Format Type : Paperback
Number of Pages : 187 Pages
Status : Available For Download
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king harald s saga harald hardradi of norway from snorri sturluson s heimskringla Reviews

  • Edward
    2019-02-02 07:52

    IntroductionNote on the Translation--King Harald's SagaGenealogical TablesGlossary of Proper NamesChronological Table, 1030-66Maps

  • Elliott Bignell
    2019-01-27 13:48

    Every British schoolchild learns the date 1066, when the Norman Conquest and the Battle of Hastings took place. As a child I visited the Bayeux Tapestry with my school exchange group. Most of us then stop listening, so it came as some surprise to this one to find that an equally epic battle was won by Harold less than three weeks earlier. This was the Battle of Stamford Bridge, at which a Viking invasion force under Harald was all but annihilated by the English in a pyrrhic victory which probably contributed decisively to their defeat and the death of the English King shortly after. This is the saga, a kind of tendentious, epic history in verse, of the Norwegian King Harald "the Ruthless" Sigurdsson, translated here into clear and engaging prose.The slaughter at Stamford Bridge was so complete that this saga reports that of the 300 Viking ships, only 28 were required to ferry the survivors home. Harald and most of the leading Norwegians died, and the era of Viking terror was effectively ended. Ironically, the Viking force may have lost by breaking formation to pursue retreating English cavalry, a mistake replicated precisely by the English at Hastings almost before the ravens can have finished gorging at Stamford Bridge. It is odd that such a climacteric event would be so completely overshadowed by the Norman Conquest to which it contributed, and I can only hazard that the latter has resonated in English minds as the last time a foreign invasion force set foot on the mainland.It is difficult to have much sympathy with Harald, as while he seems to have been personally generous and accommodating, he was clearly an absolute autocrat, fighting a series of wars over control of Denmark and forcing any who differed with his rule into exile or battle. He was devious and uncompromising in tricking others into battles they could not win, merely to eliminate competition. He was, pehaps incidentally, but like Gustavus in a later era, also apparently charismatic and enormously imposing, being well above the average height even for today. I was interested to learn that he saw action early in life with the Varangians. The theme of the 13th Warrior seems to keep cropping up in my current reading, as these were the Viking mercenaries and imperial guard who fought for the Byzantines, mainly in the Mediterranean, before later being replaced by English guards in Constantinople. The Vikings in the film would certainly have been Varangians raiding into the Black Sea.The writing of this work is engaging and crystal clear, and I was through the entire book in a couple of nights. Harald's life seems to have been fairly deplorable but an exciting story in the form of a saga. I will certainly be seeking to read more such accounts, and Snorri Sturluson wrote this as part of a much larger work, the "Heimskringla", which seems to deserve exploration based on this segment. Interestingly, germs of democracy are everywhere to be found at this time, in the elective monarchy of England and the then Icelandic Republic. I find more and more that a continuous thread can be traced from the Athenian and Roman roots to modern concepts of a democratic republic by moving from place to place within Europe.I am delighted to report that the English already seem to have displayed a touch of Monty Python as far back as the Battle of Hastings. William the Bastard dispatched an elective monarch who was the grandchild of Aethelred the Unready and the son of Ted the Grass. I am surprised that they stopped laughing enough to actually fight, but apparently the "Housecarls" were in fact the best professional soldiers in Europe at the time, if ultimately too small a force to turn two battles in short succession.Sturluson himself seems to have been a saga Viking in his own right. One of the greatest literary figures of his culture, he was nevertheless butchered in a cellar by armed men sent by an enraged king. To write saga history, it seems that he had to be part of it, and it led him into conflict with the authorities. A sad, but strangely fitting, end for such a great voice of Nordic culture.

  • John
    2019-01-26 06:13

    Apparently, a big part of the reason that William of Normandy was able to successfully defeat King Harold of England in 1066 is that he attacked just three weeks after Harold beat the pants of King Harald of Norway, who'd tried to invade the opposite end of the country. I had no idea! Well, this cool bit of Norse history told me all about it, and about the life of the guy who tried, from his teens in exile through the decades that followed as he became a powerful king by virtue of being a right bastard who didn't hesitate to fight dirty, and used whatever means were at hand to ruin his enemies.I haven't read any other translations of the work, so I have nothing to compare it to, but it read well to my ears, including the prose translations of various bits of poetry that the author quotes throughout. My only complaint about this edition might be that it is just full of footnotes, and I found them difficult to ignore, which detracted a bit from the flow of the tale itself. Few, if any, of them seemed necessary to understanding the text, so pushing them into end notes would have been less distracting. Readers who have the discipline to avoid them should be fine.

  • Eadweard
    2019-02-07 13:59

    The saga of one of the most interesting figures of the medieval world, young Harald flees from Norway, travels to southern Europe, serves in the varangian guard, goes back home, consolidates power and then tries to conquer another kingdom. My only complaint is how short the section of him in the south was, I wanted it to have more of that.

  • Rod
    2019-01-26 10:58

    King Harald Hardradi of Norway was the biggest, baddest, most unstoppable war monger of the Viking era. He was also the brother of St. Olaf. When Harald was campaigning to take the English throne, after the death of Edward the Confessor, he was struck down by an arrow to the throat. Had he survived the ill-prepared-for battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, he would have battled William the Conquerer, setting up one of the most spectacular battles in warfare history. (Yes, I went to Westminster Abbey to pay my respect to memory of King Harald; what's it to you?)

  • Joshua
    2019-01-31 12:48

    Read the review on my blog:

  • Scott
    2019-01-19 07:13

    One of my favorite Kings in all of history. Others like Poul Anderson have fleshed out his life. This translation gives you a good account of what history has left us.

  • Rebecca Jane
    2019-01-17 09:12

    3.5 stars.

  • Jacob Aitken
    2019-01-22 13:01

    This text is a critically-annotated selection from Snorri Sturluson’s Heimskringla. The translators, Magnusson and Palsson, provide a running commentary on Snorri’s text. Snorri tells the story of one of the last “Viking” leaders, albeit a somewhat Christianized one. Our protagonist is Harold Siggurdson. To the degree that Snorri’s narrative can be trusted--and we have no way of honestly knowing that--Harold in many ways typified and recapitulated the late Viking ideal--a ferocious warrior, cunning leader, and Varangian mercenary who was slain in his last battle. Snorri’s own telling of this story is mostly great. At the end his narrative tries to accomplish too much and the reader is left feeling overwhelmed. For the most part, though, it maintains the rugged beauty common to Norse stories. The editorial remarks by Magnusson and Palsson are superb. They routinely correct Snorri’s narrative when warranted. They also provide fascinating historical commentary. For example, I didn’t realize that the finest fighting army of the time were the English housecarls. They numbered about 3,000, were superbly disciplined, and were armed with Danish axes.Evaluation:Is Snorri telling the truth? Or, even assuming he is being honest, how reliable is the narrative? Ultimately, we can’t know for certain. I do think, however, that he is more reliable on this point than on other points in the Heimskringla. Harold Siggurdson is closer in time to Snorri than the other major Norse leaders (for example, the two Olafs--Tryggveson and Haraldsson) and Harald’s life seems to be a “real” life. Harold, for example, makes the kind of mistakes that regular, aggressive men make. When reading Harold’s life, especially his semi-tragic end, we see that the events “had to happen.” As to the miraculous, especially the famous dream in which St. Olaf appeared to Harold and warned him not to attack England, we can’t answer those on historical grounds. We need to make several claims: it is true that many people reported miraculous happenings with St. Olaf (Sturluson, 61, 74, 76, 104, 139). We now move to the next claim: how reliable are they? Perhaps before answering that question we can raise--and answer--yet another: Does a Christian have warrant for seeing “the miraculous” today? While some branches of Christendom posit cessationism (supernatural gifts ceased after the apostles), such a view, whatever merits it may have exegetically, is simply at odds with Eastern and Western Christian history. This does not mean every miracle story is true. Ironically, even the Vatican looks with initial skepticism on the miracle stories of potential saints. Granting that the miraculous is possible, how do we appropriate these Olaf-stories? Some of these stories do appear to represent the piety of the average Norwegian, even to the point of appearing “syncretistic” with earlier heathen practices. Snorri tells of the woman “who worshiped Olaf,” for example (104). Granted, the word “worship” has different connotations and does not necessarily connote intentional idolatry, but when one posits this episode with Harold Sigurdsson’s venerating St. Olaf’s relics, the conclusion isn’t hard to draw. Whatever arguments some Christian traditions have for venerating relics, this is a far cry from the worship Yahweh prescribed (which is perhaps a bit ironic, since many medieval kings saw themselves as modeled after King David).

  • Kelly W.
    2019-01-30 07:01

    I read this for an Old Norse-Icelandic literature course in which we translated some of the original text and read the entirety of it in translation. Needless to say, most things the Nose-Icelandic authors write are wild, even when it's a historical saga, like this one. Readers should be aware going in that this is not a straight up history - Snorri Sturluson certainly adds his own flair to historical events, and not everything is completely accurate. Still, it's a fun read for history buffs and anyone interested in Vikings.Things I Liked1. Genre: King Harald’s Saga is a historical king’s saga, meaning that it isn’t filled with a lot of supernatural episodes, which casual readers might find more entertaining. For me, however, I loved reading a saga that showed a take on history, even though that history may be more fiction than fact. Snorri’s purpose in writing this saga seemed less about recording events and more about producing a portrait of King Harald, kind of like a historical fiction book. It was fun to read about events somewhat rooted in reality while also finding funny moments like Danish people carving anchors out of cheese as an insult to the Norwegians.2. Prose and Verse: Snorri relies heavily on verse to lend credibility to his historical claims, but they also serve an aesthetic function. I liked having bits of poetry to break up the prose, and this poetry was often an expansion on a particular moment of the saga, whether that be an emotional one or a praise song for a particularly vicious warrior. It lent a certain depth to the overall narrative of the sage so reading didn’t just feel like a basic summary of events.3. Character: King Harald is certainly the character. Though this saga is based on a historical figure, Snorri definitely elaborates to some degree to create a fantastical portrait of this Norwegian king. Harald is cunning and wiley while also being a great warrior - and yet, I found myself flipping back and forth on whether or not I liked him. He certainly keeps things interesting!4. Supplementary Materials: This edition of King Harald’s Saga contains supplementary materials such as a helpful introduction, some geneological tables, maps, glossaries, etc. that are all enriching additions to the saga itself. For readers not familiar with medieval history or literature, these resources are invaluable for keeping track of everything that’s going on in the text.5. Globalism: I really loved the fact that this saga doesn’t just take place in Scandanavia or Iceland. Harald travels to Russia and Constantinople where he meets a host of different characters, which I really enjoy seeing because it reminds me that medieval peoples weren’t just confined to their own little worlds.Things I Didn’t LikeHonestly, there wasn’t anything, really. Anything against this saga would probably be based on personal preference rather than any innate faults with the texts itself (adjust for historical situatedness).Recommendations: This saga is definitely for the history enthusiast and anyone with an interest in medieval Norse-Icelandic culture. You might also like this saga if you're interested in the Norman Invasion and surrounding events, or are curious about cultures in contact in the medieval world.

  • James
    2019-02-08 07:17

    The book is carefully written and a masterful piece of scholarly work; I'm giving it only three stars because its source material was so one-dimensional in nature it made it impossible for the book to be more rounded.It's the story of King Harald Sigurdsson, also sometimes called Harald Hardrada, of Norway, a historical figure who's fascinated me since I was in high school. A larger-than-life figure in some ways; Harald was reportedly nearly seven feet tall and tremendously powerful and energetic, a sophisticated world traveler, extremely intelligent, creative, a patron of the arts, and a charismatic leader who was physically fearless and deadly in combat.Harald missed probably becoming king of England and changing European history drastically by a matter of a couple of weeks - in September 1066 he invaded England with a Norwegian army, and was killed by the English army of King Harold Godwinson in a close-fought battle at Stamford Bridge. A few days later, William the Bastard of Normandy invaded in the south, and when Harold and the English army raced back to London to fight the Norman army in turn, they were worn out and had taken significant casualties overcoming the Norwegians. As a result, William won, killing Harold at Hastings and becoming king of England and changing his nickname to William the Conqueror; he permanently changed English culture, adding a strong French/Norman streak to the Celtic/Germanic culture dominant until then. If the timing of the two invasions had been reversed, Harald would probably have won and infused England with a dominant Scandinavian culture instead.With all that said, as a person Harald was a sadistic, treacherous ogre who reveled in mass murder, rape, and pillage, ravaging and terrorizing civilian populations wherever he and his soldiers went. They boasted of looting towns and then burning them to the ground, either killing the inhabitants (usually unlucky farmers or merchants) or selling them into slavery. He was narcissistic, vindictive, petty, emotionally unstable, misogynistic, and utterly indifferent to the suffering of others.The Norwegian and Icelandic poets whose narratives form a large part of the book and nearly all its source material demonstrate that he was also mainly a product of his time and place. Viking culture, for all its achievements, was built on no higher principle than 'might makes right', though even they grew to dislike Harald for his frequent betrayals and violations of treaties and promises. But over and over, reading this book, I was struck by how much the Vikings in general, in their own words, sounded like the organized crime cartels of our time.I'm very glad this man is not alive in the present, and if he were I would stay as far away from him as possible.

  • David
    2019-02-09 06:16

    Although I thought this book was about the English King Harold when I picked it up at a library book sale, it was about King Harold of Norway, who was defeated by King Harald in 1066, just a week or two before William the Conqueror swept into England from Normandy.I managed to learn some history and some legend about Harald and his part in setting up England for defeat at the hands of the Normans. This book, originally written in the 1100's, was a serious attempt at telling Harald's story and getting the facts right. Harald was quite a character, having served as a mercenary for the Byzantine empire, and had quite a lot of adventures. He also had a reputation for cunning and guile.However, the author's sources were mainly court poets, the political cartoonists of the day, so to speak, who drew the image of Harald in broad caricature strokes. Much like Davy Crockett never killed a bear when he was only three, I think some of the stories might actually have grown with telling and retelling. However, the author makes a genuine attempt to memorialize the king with honesty-- the only question is about whether he succeeded or not. The editor points out several minor errors in footnotes, and then goes on to show that some of the details regarding Harald's last battle were mixed up with the battle of Hastings, which happened shortly thereafter.. (primarily the presence of Cavalry at Hastings while not at the battle where Harald was mortally wounded)Still, the book made for an interesting trek through ancient writings translated for the modern reader. The book was short enough to be read in a brief time.

  • Nicole
    2019-02-09 13:05

    1066 was a landmark year in English/European history - William the Conqueror, the Battle of Hastings, etc. But what often gets left out is the fact that, just 19 days before the Battle of Hastings, the English king fought (and won) a battle against another invader, King Harald Sigurdsson (Hardrada) of Norway. It's one of my favourite historical "what ifs" - what if Harald had won at Stamford Bridge? Or what if King Harold of England hadn't force-marched his army to meet William at Hastings after defeating Harald; would he have won if his army had been better rested? Well, spoiler alert, we know how it ended. But this saga tells the story of Harald's life and rule leading up to his defeat and death, and it's a fascinating story. Harald certainly lived an interesting life - he spent years in exile, joined the Varangian Guard in the Byzantine Empire, fought for years against the king of Denmark, and was considered the last great Viking king. His death marks the end of the Viking Age. This translation was good - clear, to the point, and the translators provide plenty of historical context. I see that they've translated other sagas, so I'll definitely seek those out!The saga itself aside, I also loved the translators' introduction about the author himself, Snorri Sturluson. He was discussed in the book on the Lewis Chessmen I read earlier this year, and he's really an interesting historical figure. I was glad to learn more. Mental note: see if there's a biography written about him!2016 reading challenge: a book from antiquity

  • Ensiform
    2019-01-24 09:10

    Translated and annotated, with an introduction by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson. It is a brief excerpt from Snorri’s Heimskringla, his complete history of Norway. It tells the story of Harald Sigurdsson, half-brother of St. Olaf, who through cunning and treachery became king of Norway, then in 1066 vied for the English throne with Harold of England, just before the latter was defeated by William the Bastard. Although Snorri doesn’t preach the moral of the story, it becomes clear that Harald is not a noble man. He breaks his word several times: for example he promises his enemies safe passage and then murders them; and he tests his co-king and nephew Magnus by insisting (unjustly) on his right to use the royal jetty.It is a quite vivid picture of what men had to do in those conditions to gain and keep power, although other personages in the saga can be chivalrous, and are evidently disgusted with Harald’s duplicity. My sympathies never lay with Harald, even given his context. The editors note, interestingly, that Harold might have defeated William if he hadn’t been drawn into the mass slaughter with Harald at Stamford Bridge.

  • Misha Hoekstra
    2019-02-01 07:52

    Another great classic from Iceland, but what I want to call attention to here is not the compelling character studies or the always compelling presence of everyday violence in the sagas but two points about the role of poets. The first is that Snorri Sturluson builds the saga up primarily from poems rather than sagas or histories because he actually finds the court poets more reliable. They may exaggerate, he suggests, but they will not lie. Moreover, the complex musical form tended to preserve them intact over the years, while oral histories change with each teller, if not each telling.The second is the way that kings then surrounded themselves with poets, much as politicians now court journalists. The introduction mentions one telling example of respect for the poetic arts: on the eve of his execution in 950, Egil Skalla-Grimsson composed a eulogy to honor his bitterest enemy, Eirik Blood-Axe. Head-Ransom had the effect its title indicates it was aiming at: Eirik was so impressed that he granted Egil his life.Which is why Egil's Saga is on deck.

  • russell barnes
    2019-01-21 07:15

    Britain's most famous Icelander is at it again, only this time telling the tale of the last great Viking king, Harald, who ruthlessly subjugated Norway and attempted to invade England in 1066. Confusingly he was beaten by King Harold at the battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, and Harold was then beaten by Harald's nephew (?) at the Battle of Hastings. This is not the end of being confused in an admittedly very-slim volume. The sheer amount of pillaging, double-dealing, trickery, chicanery and verses dedicated to axes chopping enemies up, all add up to a certain amount of deja-vu. Particularly as most of Norway, Denmark and Sweden are related to each other, and called Ulf, Olaf, Harald, or Sven.Griping aside, the early tales of Harald's exploits in the Middle East are full of derring-do and exotic mystery, and the fact the Icelandic court poets weren't exactly in the James Joyce league of literary obfuscation, made this a fairly easy romp. Even if the names confused matter.

  • Cwn_annwn_13
    2019-02-05 09:48

    Highly recomended! The only disapointment this saga brings is that because Harald Hardradi lived after the conversion to Christianity in Norway (at least by the upper classes) so you don't get the glimpses into how the Norse Heathen religion was practiced like you do in nearly all the other sagas. Other than that this is one of the better sagas. You get entertaining recounts of Haralds wild adventerous life and his political manuverings and skullduggery. Also this is a source for info on my favorite year/event in history to read about, the year 1066 in English history where you had the Kings of three major European nations fighting, with two of them dying on the battlefield, for the Kingship of England. Can you imagine any of our cowardly so called leaders ever putting themselves in the line of fire like these guys did?

  • Shane
    2019-02-11 08:54

    Found a new favorite poet in King Harald HardradiNow I go creeping from forest To forest with little honor;Who knows my name may yet become Renowned far and wide I see Sailing through the townWith a host of warlike followersGenerously paunched Einar,Skilled plougher of the ocean.The stout chief of Norway;Even kings, I sometimes feel, Keep smaller courts than his. Einar of the failing swordWill drive me from this country Unless I first persuade him To kiss my thin-lipped ax.Now I have caused the deaths Of thirteen of my enemies;I kill without compunction, And remember all my killings. Treason must be scotched By fair means or foul Before it overwhelms me;Oak trees grow from acorns.

  • Desiree Wallen
    2019-01-31 09:04

    For an "account" of a king's life written in the mid-1200's, this is pretty well-constructed by Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson. The translation by Magnus Magnusson (a man whose name is indicative of the badassery in this book) is really swell, complete with footnotes of really obscure references and potential language disputes. Some "events" were mind-blowing (using birds with lit matches strapped on their back to burn down a town? Not sure how that's possible, but I liked it), but others were things I had seen before. No offense to Storluson's prose, it's just all the historical accounts of the period had their subjects fighting and being the heroes in great battles they were not really at. If it had a little more content specific to King Harald, I would have been more impressed.

  • J Name
    2019-02-04 11:05

    Really good history and story here, the Snorri has brought us very good insight to the men of his recent past. King Harald's life story was remarkable and there was more than just his story to tell. A very good history read indeed. It did get a little dry at times but I'm reading things very relentlessly since I want to read so much this year, so it took only a couple of days. I recommend this to people who don't know [much] about the battle of Hastings (like myself before hand), those interested in European History-Middle Ages or just likes the Icelandic (or in someways Norse because of the time period) Sagas or anyone who wants to read some history with humanity.I loved the parts with they siege the towns the most.

  • Siria
    2019-01-29 08:08

    This is a solid, serviceable translation of part of the Heimskringla. I'll admit that medieval Scandinavian history is not my strong point, so I can't speak to how accurately it captures the sense of the original, but it read clearly and easily (even though I didn't like how the footnotes were arranged). I would have appreciated more and better integrated/connected genealogical tables, though; the kinship relationships were clearly extremely important to medieval Icelandic/Norse society, but it was hard to keep track of all the various interrelationships.

  • CJSilvie
    2019-02-14 06:03

    Magnus Magnuson is the king of scandinavian translation, by far my favourite. This book is maybe not the best of sagas in story telling but it is an indispensable for Norwegian and Anglo-saxon history. It IS still fairly reliable as a historical text as corroborated by other sources. A fascinating insight in to a fascinating (though sometimes brutal) man. For those intersted in the Byzantine empire and the ellusive Varangians it is worth a read for these parts alone.

  • Colin Bruce Anthes
    2019-02-01 07:18

    I'm left dreaming in the land of "what if?" This would have made for some fantastic Shakespearian plays, a King Harald part I, II, and III, instead of Henry VI. Though scholars have found many errors in Snorri's telling of King Harald's Saga (he seems to mostly reference poetry as is source of information, which, as a storyteller himself, makes sense), one can easily see that the fiction comes from a genuine place. A remarkable story for anyone interested in this sort of thing.

  • Tony
    2019-01-25 09:54

    A lively story about the Norwegian king of the mid-11th century. Typical from a medieval Icelandic author, the protagonist is neither heroic nor villainous, though he is great. Good translation and an appropriate amount of footnoted information, especially comparing the facts of the story against Byzantine and English sources. I'd put it a notch below the saga of burnt Njal and the Nibelungenlied in this class of books, but it's still quite good and worth the short investment to read.

  • Rob
    2019-02-02 09:50

    I have enjoyed these Icelandic sagas (although this one is not in Iceland but uses Icelandic poets for the information). Fascinating picture of another perspective on the wars between Denmark and Norway and the later battles in England ending with the well known confrontation at Stamford Bridge and later at Hastings. Good translation and a good read.

  • Csenge
    2019-01-29 11:04

    One of my favorite sagas, and a great edition. Clear translation, very interesting and detailed introduction, family trees included, and extensive footnotes explaining dates, details, confusions, and adding info on many of the characters. Not my first read of the saga, but still a lot of new things in it to discover!

  • Jon
    2019-02-14 11:57

    Fascinating mix of legend and history and a quick road trip around the Europe of the 11th Century.Fuller review now on my blog here for the interested.

  • وسام عبده
    2019-01-25 11:54

    A fantastic saga about this warrior Harald Hardrada from the north Constantinople to Kiev to North.

  • Garrett Cash
    2019-01-30 11:02

    Not just an excellent piece for medieval scholarship, but a compelling story that I can't believe hasn't been picked up by Hollywood yet.

  • Ian Fiddes
    2019-02-04 07:15

    6/10. More for historical interest.